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Abstract : It has been demonstrated that the most common risk factors for gallstones formations are fatty diet, carbohydrate diet, age, female gender, obesity and rapid weight change. However, information regarding prevalence and significant risk factors of the mentioned disease still restricted in AL-Kut city. Determine main risk factors in patients with gallstones among AL-Kut city population, Wasit, Iraq. Sample population of present study consists of two groups; control (n=100), and individuals diagnosed with gallstones (n=100). Notably, people in both groups were selected from Al-Karama teaching hospital in AL-Kut city following consent signing up in order to participate in this study via filling the questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 26. Each group had a total of 100 individuals. Percentages of females were 46% and 71% in control and case groups respectively. We also found that 47% and 49% of females in both groups (control and case respectively) have had previous pregnancy. Moreover, percentage of smoker individuals was 35% in control, while it was only 12 in case groups. In our study population, both groups had similar BMIs, with 59 % of the control group and 62 % of the cases group having a BMI of greater than 24 kg/m2. In the category "rapid weight change," there was a significant difference between the two groups: 23 percent of the controls had a weight change, either gain or loss, whereas 51% of the cases had a rapid weight change. The control group consumed fat (3%) and carbohydrate (12%) less than the cases group when it came to the type of diet they chose to eat (31%, 26% percent respectively). The control group consumed a mixed diet (68%) more than the cases group (27%). After using multivariate regression analysis, age between 20-45 years (OR - 2.726, p value- 0.001), female gender (OR - 2.874, p value - 0.000) and rapid weight change (OR - 3.484, p value - 0.000), previous pregnancy (OR -1.909, p value -0.021), fatty diet (OR-14.527, p value 0.000), carbohydrate diet (OR-2.577, p value 0.011) were found to be independent risk factors for development of gallstones. The main risk factors for gallstones are female gender, previous pregnancy, age ranging from 20-45 years, rapid weight change and diet rich in fat and carbohydrate.

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