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Abstract : Cholera is an important, recurrent source of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. Illness is caused by infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 bacteria, most often acquired through ingestion of fecally contaminated water or food. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and profuse watery diarrhea. Severe disease causes rapid dehydration, is marked by loss of skin turgor and sunken eyes, and can result in death within hours if untreated. The first aim of this study was to review the prevalence of cholera infection in different governorates of Iraq during the period from 1/1 to 9/12 / 2015. Secondly, to clarify the governorates with the highest cholera incidence, and try to explain the factors behind this incidence if found. In this prospective cohort study, this was comprised of 2866 subjects out of 3547 examined cases. They were sent from different parts of Iraq, who were diagnosed with cholera infection. These cholera patients were collected during the period from January to December 2015. Bacteriology, serology and all other lab investigations were worked out in the central health laboratory in Baghdad. There were high cholera casualties' proportions in a number of Iraq governorates as Baghdad Al-Rusfa (n=627, 21.9 %%), Baghdad Al-Karkh (n=357, 12.5%), Al-Hilla (n=657, 23.6%), and Al-Diwanyia (n=445, 15.5%) compared to other parts of Iraq in the same period, and the disease seems to localize in middle and to lesser degree in southern parts of Iraq. We recommend repeating the study, in a larger frame, using more sophisticated tools, especially molecular diagnostics which have proven their value as extremely sensitive and specific techniques, that can improve the diagnosis of cholera and also help in putting a more accurate epidemiological characters of this disease.

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