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Abstract : Thalassemia is the most common hemoglobin disorder in the world including in Iraq. Population migration and intermarriage between different ethnic groups have had a major impact on disease epidemiology. This retrospective study was conducted in the Thalassemia Care Center of Ibn- Al-Baladi General Hospital, Baghdad from January 2017 to December 2020. The aim was to observe the prevalence and spectrum of thalassemia as well as demographic and social factors of thalassemia patients. Data were analyzed both manually and by SPSS-26. The mean age of patients was from 1 - 40 years (± 3.66). Near about half of patients (50%) were diagnosed at the age of 1-10 years. The majority of patients belonged to the lower middle class, with male predominance (52.8%). The percentage of β thalassemia major was the highest (64.6%) followed by β thalassemia intermedia (21.3%) and sickle cell disease (7.9%) and alpha-thalassemia (6.3%). Male predominance was found in every type of thalassemia. A nationwide screening program should be carried out to address the carrier status of the population at risk. There may be further analysis regarding the clinical diversity of thalassemia.

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