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Abstract : Carcinoma of the esophagus is a common disease with high morbidity and mortality. There rate is increasing in sub-Saharan and East Africa, literature is scarce in Sudan. This study aimed to assess gender differences in esophageal carcinoma in Sudan. This retrospective study was conducted at the endoscopy unit in Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan during the period from September 2021 to April 2022. The patients' records from January 2017 to December 2019 were approached. A checklist was used to collect the demographic factors, the presenting symptoms, social and dietary habits; the associated factors including anemia, achalasia, and esophageal refluxing in addition to histopathology findings. Out of ninety-three patients with esophageal cancer, (57% were women who were younger than men, 95% CI, 0.74-12.5), mean age, 63.82±14.43 years, and Western Sudan reported the highest prevalence (34.4%). Homemakers and farmers were the commonest, 53.8% and 31.2% respectively. The commonest presenting symptom was dysphagia (96.8%), 74.2% were anemic, smoking was observed in 9.7%, 32.3% used to consume hot food and 16.1% consume spicy food, and 40.9%) had reflux esophagitis and achalasia was found in 24.7%. Smoking was commoner among males (95% CI, P-value, 0.027), with no differences between gender regarding spicy food, hot food, reflux esophagitis, achalasia, and histopathological type, P-values > 0.05. The commonest presenting symptoms were dysphagia and loss of weight, homemakers were most likely affected, spicy food, reflux esophagitis were the most common risk factors, and adenocarcinoma is more common. Smoking was common among males; no differences were evident regarding other factors.

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