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Abstract : Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non- scarring hair loss. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their life time. The etiology is not clear, although the evidence suggests that AA is an immunologically mediated disease. The Th1 cells, disturbs the natural balance of the cytokine networks and leads to inflammatory reaction and hair follicle damage. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine constituting 2 forms; α- which mainly cell bound, and β-secreted by the macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells upon immune stimulation. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes T cell survival and B cell proliferation. IL-1β is a key mediator of the inflammatory response. It is essential for the host-response and also resistance to pathogens. Functional polymorphisms of IL-1β can possibly be a risk factor for the development of AA.

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