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Abstract : This study was conducted for detection of Theileria spp. in camels in different areas of Al-Diwaniyah province during period from September 2019 to February 2020. A total of 150 from blood samples and 25 lymph samples from camels were collected from both sexes and different ages. Theileria spp. in camels were detected by staining using Giemsa stain, Pathological changes of lymph nodes and molecular diagnosis. The parasite was found in forms ring, round and rod form inside the RBCs and macroschizonts (Koch's blue bodies) within lymphocytes in blood smears stained with Giemsa stain. the results of microscopically examination of blood smears showed that49 (32.6%). The results of microscopically examination of lymph smears stained by Giemsa stain observed which 7(28%) from total 25 camel's lymph node samples, that show the circular appearance of schizonts in shape. The histopathological changes of infected lymph nodes with Theileria spp. which showed increase number of lymphocyte, hyperplasia of lymphoblast with increase number of macrophage. According to the molecular study, out of 26(53.06%) of examined blood sample were positive result in conventional PCR technique. Sequencing of fragment of the of (18S rRNA) gene (592bp) separated from Al-Diwaniyah province referred to there are three species of Theileria from twenty PCR positive samples confirmed in camel including 17(85%) samples diagnosed as T. annulata, 2(10%) samples as T. equi and 1(5%) sample as T. lestoqaurdi. with highly significant difference at (P>0.01). T. lestoqaurdi. firstly reported in Iraq.

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