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Abstract : Drug resistance is one of the major issues in the world, and it led to a limitation of treatment options for serious health problems. The present work was achieved to detect the existence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Wound exudates and burn swabs (a total of 1590) were collected from the general hospitals in Al-Najaf city. The recommended biochemical assays were used to detect the Klebsiella spp. and the API 20E system was used to confirm this detection. MIC-strip and disk diffusion methods were used to identify the antibiotics susceptibility pattern and ESBLs were detected phenotypically, while by using the PCR technique, the bla-genes (blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV) were identified. Out of 1590 isolates, 109 (6.9%) isolates of K. pneumoniae were identified, and 4 (3.6%), 32 (29.3%), and 93 (85.3%) isolates were considered as pan-drug resistant (PDR), extensive drug resistant (XDR), and multi-drug resistant (MDR) respectively. ESBL producer isolates were identified in 86% of the isolates. PCR assay identified that 52.3% of the isolates holding one type of bla-genes at least with the predominance of the blaCTX-M gene (35.7%). While the blaOXA gene was detected in 36 (33%) isolates and blaSHV gene was detected in 12 (11%) isolates. From the results of the present study, we concluded the presence of an alarming percentage of isolates of K. pneumoniae that produce ESBL in hospitals of Al-Najaf city and the existence of high rate of CTX-M-ESBL among these isolates.

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