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Abstract : The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of propolis against the adverse effects of PCOS. The study included 15 females and was divided into 3 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 representing the control was given 0.1 ml of PBS orally, once a day for 26 days. Each rat in groups 2, and 3 were given 0.1 ml of (1 mg/kg) of Litrozol orally, once a day for 26 days, Group 3 was later treated with the propolis water extract for another 26 days. Several biological parameters were measured. The PCOS group showed a decrease in the level of insulin and HDL-C, corresponding to an increase in the level of total glucose, LDL-C, and TG. In terms of liver function tests, the PCOS group showed a significant increase in the level of AST and ALT enzymes. Also, the level of the antioxidant enzyme SOD decreased at the expense of the increase in the level of MDA indicating increased lipid peroxidation in this group. The level of estrogen and progesterone decreased and the level of PRL hormone increased in the PCOS group. After treating the PCOS rats with Propolis extract, the animals showed a recovery of the normal levels of the measured vital parameters and they were close to their levels in the control group. The results of the histological study of the ovaries of the two groups and in comparison with the control confirmed, that there was an improvement in the histological structure of the ovaries of the PCOS group after treatment with Propolis extract.

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