The unknown ray discovered by Roentgen in 1895, which he called X-ray, played an essential role in medicine as well as in dentistry. In medicine, it assisted in the study of the human body, especially in orthopedics. While in dentistry, this ray simplified the diagnosis process either by revealing the simple caries or by solving the more complicated problems in periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and maxillofacial surgery. And after Walkhoff recorded his first dental radiograph in early 1896, dentists from different countries competed to record their dental images with various techniques. Throughout the history of dental radiology, many people have played an important role in the development of this radiation, either by putting different principles for different imaging modalities, or even by presenting precautions and directions that helped others use this discovery correctly. The aim of this article, besides reviewing the history of dental radiology in detail, is to honor and pay respect to all those departed souls who sacrificed their health and lives for x-rays.
A significant factor that determines the effectiveness and endurance of restorative materials in the oral cavity is their ability to adhere to cavity walls. The objective of the current study was to determine and compare the microleakage of restorations made with newer materials ORMOCER and Nanocomposite resin with that of Conventional microfilled composites. For an in-vitro study, 30 premolars were used and prepared with Class II cavities. They were randomly divided into three groups of 10 teeth each, based on the restorative material used. Group I was filled with a Conventional Microfilled Composite (Filtek Z250 Universal restorative+ DX. Bond, which is a total etch light cure adhesive System) Group II with Nanocomposite (Filtek Supreme XT by 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA + Scotchbond Multipurpose, 3M ESPE) and Group III with ORMOCER (Admira Fusion Voco + Admira Bond). The microleakage was assessed by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a stereomicroscope. The statistical significance was established using the Chi-square test, with a p-value of less than 0.05 being considered significant. The average dye penetration in groups I, II, and III was found to be 0.57 mm, 0.24 mm, and 0.05 mm, respectively. The distinction was appreciable. (P ≤ 0.05). Compared to Nanocomposite and Conventional microfilled composites, ORMOCER materials demonstrated the least microleakage.
Breast diseases include benign inflammatory disorders and fatal invasive cancers. This research examines breast disease trends in Al Elwiyah early breast cancer screening patients over 35. This research used March–September 2022 Baghdad Al-Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital women's health centre data. 150 over-35 female recordings were randomly selected. Utilizing BI-RADS breast density classification, 2013 mammography data split patients into two groups: Group I type A+B (fatty, scattered fibroglandular) or (Non-dense) and Group II type C+D. (heterogeneously dense, dense, or dense). All hospital records included age, weight (kg), height (cm), BMI (kg/m2), parity, menarche year, breast feeding duration, ultimate diagnosis, and other information. Most patients (41.3%) are 40-49 years old, 50.7% of females are overweight, 52.7% have 1-3 infants, 42.7% breastfeed for less than 6 months, 78% are married, 38% have category 1 BIRAD of mammography, 36.7% have category 2 of ultrasonography, and 57.1% have substantial malignant lesion. Cytology and histology identify all malignancies, whereas US and mammography detect 60.9 percent of benign tumours. No BMI-diagnosis link (BMI). Long-term contraception and age 50–59 cause cancer. Diagnosis, parity, and breastfeeding length are unrelated. Most breast problems are benign. Fibroadenoma is more common in younger persons. Mastalgia and breast mass rule out malignancy. Most breast complaints in young women are caused by benign disorders that may be treated, however precancerous tendencies may need close monitoring.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effect of olive leaf extract, silymarin extract with silver nanoparticle on diabetic rat at histopathological study. Silver nanoparticle were prepared via green chemistry methods using olive leaf and silymarin extract as capping and reducing agent which reduce silver nitrate (AgNo3) into silver nanoparticles. The present study included 50 rat weight range from 120 – 200 grams. Animal divided randomly into 5 group (each group=10) as follow: the first group (G1) as healthy non diabetic control (control negative) don't received any type of treatment. The other groups were treated intraperitoneally once with 120 mg/kg b.w of alloxan, then when these rats became hyperglycemic according to)Accu-check Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), this group consider (G2) as (control positive ), (G3):Diabetic rats were treated orally daily dose(50 mg) of silver nanoparticle of olive leaf extract, (G4):Diabetic rats treated orally daily dose(16 mg) of silver nanoparticle of silymarin extract, while (G5) Diabetic rats treated orally daily dose (33 mg)of nanoparticle for both olive leaf extract and silymarin extract. At the end of the experiment after 3 months, tissue samples were taken from the pancreas, liver and kidney of all groups for histopathological study. Histopathological investigation of pancreas, liver, kidney and heart tissues of diabetic rats represented the presence of different changes in rats with induced diabetes by alloxan. Meanwhile treatment with olive leaf extract and silymarin extract for AgNPs overcome those changes.
It is becoming a public health concern to predict which pregnant women may develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of this case control research is to investigate the role of maternal oxidative stress levels in the first, second, and third trimesters, as well as other factors, in the development of GDM. During October and December 2021, 142 women participated in this study. The 101 GDM patients were separated into three groups based on their trimester (T1, T2, and T3), and 41 healthy pregnant women were chosen as the control group. Levels of oxidative stress were determined by measurement of Total Antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) using colorimetric methods while oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), xanthine oxidase (XO) and dehydrogenase (XDH) activities were measured. The TOS levels were higher in all GDM groups compared with control (p=0.000) and high significant between patients groups in the order (T3>T2>T1), while high significant of TAS in GDM than control but in the order (T3
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