In recent years, multiple epidemiological studies have been conducted on vitamin D, revealing its potential role in preventing various bone and non-bone related diseases. However, the effectiveness of vitamin D in reducing inflammation, preventing infections, and fighting cancer is contingent on individual-specific extrinsic and intrinsic factors that impact one's vitamin D status. We are interested in examining the relationship between vitamin D levels and various socio-clinical-pathological parameters. Our study involved 789 participants, consisting of 715 women and 74 men, where we measured their plasma 25(OH)D3 level. We found that 57.16% were deficient in vitamin D, 35.11% had insufficient levels, and only 7.73% had a normal level. We observed a correlation between vitamin D levels and both sex and diabetes, however, we did not find any correlation with sun exposure, outdoor sports activity, high blood pressure, or age. Additionally, we suspect that there may be a relationship between vitamin D status and the participant's region of residence. Some of our findings align with existing literature, but we also observed regional differences in the results. The status of an individual's vitamin D can be affected by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, it would be beneficial to broaden the scope of the sample population and include additional parameters to be examined in future studies.
Carcinoma of the esophagus is a common disease with high morbidity and mortality. There rate is increasing in sub-Saharan and East Africa, literature is scarce in Sudan. This study aimed to assess gender differences in esophageal carcinoma in Sudan. This retrospective study was conducted at the endoscopy unit in Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan during the period from September 2021 to April 2022. The patients' records from January 2017 to December 2019 were approached. A checklist was used to collect the demographic factors, the presenting symptoms, social and dietary habits; the associated factors including anemia, achalasia, and esophageal refluxing in addition to histopathology findings. Out of ninety-three patients with esophageal cancer, (57% were women who were younger than men, 95% CI, 0.74-12.5), mean age, 63.82±14.43 years, and Western Sudan reported the highest prevalence (34.4%). Homemakers and farmers were the commonest, 53.8% and 31.2% respectively. The commonest presenting symptom was dysphagia (96.8%), 74.2% were anemic, smoking was observed in 9.7%, 32.3% used to consume hot food and 16.1% consume spicy food, and 40.9%) had reflux esophagitis and achalasia was found in 24.7%. Smoking was commoner among males (95% CI, P-value, 0.027), with no differences between gender regarding spicy food, hot food, reflux esophagitis, achalasia, and histopathological type, P-values > 0.05. The commonest presenting symptoms were dysphagia and loss of weight, homemakers were most likely affected, spicy food, reflux esophagitis were the most common risk factors, and adenocarcinoma is more common. Smoking was common among males; no differences were evident regarding other factors.
Worldwide, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is considerably higher. Endothelial cells in healthy arteries are in a quiescent state, which is kept in place by laminar blood and moving cytoprotective substances and secretes a large number of growth factors and cytokines that control various vascular functions. 1-Evaluation endothelial dysfunction by some biochemical markers 2-Evaluation endothelial dysfunction by Doppler ultrasonography study. A case control study to sample of 88 patients with long termT2DM were collected from the department of medicine at Salah-Aldeen General Hospital, Tikrit-Iraq. Assessment endothelial function was evaluated by Doppler study of common carotid artery, measurement carotid intima- media thickness (CIMT), and some biochemical markers. Endothelial dysfunction markers have highly significant increment in T2DM in comparison to control groups. The common carotid arteries had high abnormal intima-medial thickness of (61.4%)in diabetic patients, atheroma represent 17% of diabetic cases.
Scoliosis can arise from a variety of causes and is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10° on an anterior-posterior standing radiograph. This study examines the significance of Transcranial Motor evoked potential (Tc-MEP) in avoiding immediate and persistent neurologic impairments after spinal surgery and compares intraoperative MEP alterations to neurological outcomes. Private Erbil hospitals did this research from March 2021 through May 2022. All participants were told about the electrophysiological assessment and gave informed permission. Al-Nahrain University Faculty of Medicine Institute Review Board authorised the research. A senior neurosurgeon or orthopaedic surgeon diagnosed scoliosis in 51 individuals (23 males, 28 females) aged 12–33 years and 161.45±4.17 cm. The Medical Consultation Office of Erbil Teaching Hospital's neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery sections and private clinics recommended patients for scoliosis treatment. This study included 51 scoliosis patients. Transcranial Motor-Evoked Potentials (Tc-MEPs) were measured in lower limb muscles, showing a statistically significant decrement in amplitude and increment in latency during surgery compared to baseline. Alarm readings showed a highly significant decrement in amplitude and increment in latency compared to both baseline and intraoperative readings. One specific muscle, Lt Tibialis Anterior, showed a significant decrease in amplitude during surgery compared to baseline and intraoperative readings. Intraoperative MEP neuromonitoring is crucial in preventing neurological injuries during scoliosis surgeries. Tc-MEP provides real-time spinal cord function assessment, enabling more aggressive surgical corrections, while interdisciplinary communication optimizes monitoring effectiveness.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms that arise from median nerve compression and slowing at the wrist joint through the carpal tunnel. This research examines the effects of Tinel's, Phalen's, and Durkan's provocative tests, which are often used to diagnose CTS, on median nerve electrodiagnostic measures. The neurophysiology section of Al-Imamain Al-Kadhimain Medical City hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, conducted a prospective cohort research from February to August 2022 on 57 female CTS patients. All patients had their median nerve sensory and motor components assessed at baseline and after each of the three provocative tests, with two minutes between each. Median nerve latency parameters (DML, SL, minimal F latency) were significantly prolonged, while Compound motor action potential (CMAP) amplitude, Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude, and SNCV values all decreased significantly after each of these three provocative tests (P<0.05). Electrodiagnostic parameters of the three clinical provocative tests indicated non-significant differences (P>0.05). Phalen's sensory measures (SL and SNCV), MNCV, and CMAP amplitude had the greatest sensitivity and specificity percentages among the three provocative tests, whereas the other parameters had inconsistent findings. Phalen's test exhibited the best sensitivity and specificity of the tested assays, highlighting its clinical provocative value in CTS identification.
Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved | Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences