Sepsis-induced renal impairment, which is carried on by polymicrobial sepsis, is one of the greatest clinical problems in medical practice. Even though numerous treatment approaches have been applied in such clinical challenges, a new efficient therapeutic approach is still required. celastrol is a substance derived from the medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii. Celastrol's impact on acute kidney damage (AKI) is not yet known. To ascertain how well celastrol works to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation during sepsis & examine its impact on TLR - 4/NF- kB signaling. Cecal ligation and puncture, CLP), Celastrol (2 mg/kg/1 hour intraperitoneally before CLP. After 24 hrs. we sacrificed the animals and blood was aspirated from each mouse’s heart. Kidney tissue was homogenated and then used in the ELISA procedure to identify markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, MIF, TNFα, F2- isoprostane, Caspase- 3, Bcl- 2, and TLR- 4) . Pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6)], macrophage migration factor, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] are released in response to pathogen infection. Anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) levels, oxidative stress marker (F2-isoprostane), pro-apoptotic factor (caspase-3), anti-apoptotic factor (Bcl-2) levels, and toll-like receptor- 4 levels all raised in sepsis patients. By inhibiting TLR-4/NF-kB downstream signal transduction pathways, celastrol was found to reduce kidney damage in male mice during CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis.
COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 which first appeared in China, become a global health issue. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that increases food intake and decreases fat utilization, resulting in weight gain. Ghrelin influences nutritional intake and the release of growth hormone, and therefore development and growth. IL-6 is the common pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of Ghrelin and IL-6 in obese patients infected with COVID-19 as early predictor markers of COVID-19 severity. In this case-control study ,60 obese subjects, included 30 obese volunteers without any chronic disease or COVID-19 and 30 obese patients infected with COVID-19 and admitted to Al-Sader Medical City and Al-Amal hospital in Najaf, Iraq, divided into three cases according to the severity (13 mild/moderate), (10 severe) and (7 dead) with the age ranged between (25-60) years. Thirty (20 male and 10 female) apparently healthy subjects were selected as control group, their age and sex were comparable to the patients. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits used to measure serum Ghrelin and IL-6 levels. The serum level of Ghrelin was significantly decreased, while serum level of IL-6 increased in non-survived and sever cases than the mild/moderate cases. Ghrelin negatively correlated with serum level of IL-6 in obese patients infected with COVID-19. IL-6 and Ghrelin levels in the obese patients can be a useful prognostic tool associated with COVID-19 to predicts the SARS-COV-2 severity in the obese patients with COVID-19.
The condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, low-grade chronic inflammation, and ovarian dysfunction. Insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities are examples of metabolic changes. In PCOS, there is an immune cell balance issue. Pentraxin 3 Another member of the pentraxin superfamily and an acute-phase protein, (PTX3) is essential for humoral innate immunity. adiposity and cardiovascular problems in PCOS-affected women are related to innate and adaptive immunological response. However, The level of circulating PTX3 in PCOS is still unknown. To assessment, circulating level of PTX3 in PCOS women, and find possible correlation between metabolic and hormonal consequences factors that could effect on serum PTX3 level. Serum levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and fasting insulin (FINS), and hormones were measured by ELISA technique. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Serum PTX3, Insulin levels, as well as HOMA-IR, LH, FSH, and LH/FSH were higher in PCOS women than in healthy women group. There were significantly positive correlations between PTX3level and BMI, WHR, FINS, and HOMA-IR. While, negative correlation with FSH, and SHBG, HDL-C levels in PCOS women group. Our findings demonstrate that the elevated levels of PTX3 seen in young PCOS women, as well as PTX3's independent association with hyperandrogenism and other endocrine and ovarian features of PCOS, are linked to obesity, cardiovascular issues, fibroblast dysfunction, and endothelial cell dysfunction in Pcos women.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a progressive disorder characterized by stenosis and/or occlusion of large and medium-sized arteries, causing obstructions in blood flow in one or more of the major limb arteries. This study was carried out evaluation the Calprotectin activity to Diagnosis of Peripheral artery disease. The samples were collected (120) individuals (both gender) (patients and control groups) with aged (30-85) years old. Sixty patients (30 Intermittent, 30 Critical) and 60 healthy controls from (February to May 2022). The present study examined levels of Calprotectin, glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1C), Haemoglobin (Hb), and D-Dimer. The results depicted that Hb level was significantly higher in PAD of intermittent and critical patients compared to control (12.72± 2.11mg/dL, 14.23± 2.11mg/dL and 14.84± 1.69mg/dL respectively, p < 0.001. The results showed of the HbA1c level in PAD of intermittent, critical, and controls groups were (7.37 ± 1.72%, 11.16± 1.62%, and 6.68±1.87%) respectively. The patients with the critical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) had a considerably higher HbA1c level. The present study showed of D-dimer in PAD for intermittent, critical, and controls groups that significant differences (p<0.001), recorded the highest value recorded in the critical PAD (783.96±403.94mg/mL ).The present study appeared found a significant difference (p<0.001) in different groups that calprotectin were recorded in the intermittent PAD group (1.56± 0.42 ng/ml) & the critical PAD group (1.41±0.33 ng/mL), Where they were recorded highest values in the intermittent PAD group and the lowest value in the control group (0.63± 0.08mg/mL). The data showed Elevated serum calprotectin levels in patients groups (intermittent & critical) and it correlation with HbA1C, Hb, and D-Dimer. Where suggest a role for calprotectin to the diagnosis as a biomarker for early detection of peripheral arterial disease.
Hyaluronic acid is a polymer found in the extracellular matrix of the cumulus oophorus and is thought to have a part in the selection of mature spermatozoa. The concept behind the hyaluronan binding assay (HBA) is that mature spermatozoa are selectively attracted to hyaluronan (HA) during the natural process of fertilization. Based on sperm binding to HA, the three binding zones were classified as having excellent binding for >90%, medium binding for 60-90%, and low binding for 60% in the literature. This study suggests that intrauterine insemination (IUI) be used in cases where the binding was greater than 60%. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of the Hyaluronan Binding Assay (HBA), on the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with not well diagnosed infertility or mild male factor infertility. Forty(40) infertile couples will be enrolled in our study. On the day of IUI procedure, HBA test will be performed by using fresh semen samples, then prepared by direct and indirect swim-up techniques after that, the rates of sperm binding to HBA will be calculated. HBA values and semen parameters will be compared, the best selected spermatozoa will be intrauterinely inseminated. Later on the statistical analysis will be used to evaluate the relationship between HBA ratio and pregnancy status and make comparison between pregnant and non pregnant. The infertile patients that will be involved in this study. Sperm parameters will be assessed according to WHO manual. Included different types on male infertility especially mild and unexplained infertile patients which must be included. All of parameters will be evaluated in relevance to IUI outcome. In this study, the cut-off value for the HBA ratio, which serves as a predictor of a positive pregnancy test result, was 83%. There was a significant positive correlation between HBR and sperm concentration before (p=0.002) and after (p0.001) activation, progressively motile sperm after activation (p=0.037), and total progressively motile sperm count after activation (p 0.001), as well as a significant correlation between HBR and morphologically normal sperm after activation (p=0.028); however, there was an insignificant correlation with progressively motile sperm (p=0.915) and morphologically normal sperm(p=0.296) both before activation. Despite the fact that the HBA values (84%) in the pregnant group were higher than those in the non-pregnant group (77%) in this study, the pregnancy rate (20%) was not reached as a statistically significant level. Additionally, there was no connection between HBA readings and whether a woman was pregnant. Additionally, there was no significant correlation between pregnancy status and HBA ratios based on the suggested hyaluronan binding assay rate between direct and indirect swim up sperm activating techniques showed a marginally higher assay rate in the indirect swim up procedure (80.94 percent versus 77.71 percent and p =0.197). Direct swim-up sperm activation was used, and the pregnancy rate was somewhat higher (31.3 percent versus 12.5 percent and p=0.146) in the indirect swim-up procedure. There are a few studies that assess the predictive impact of HBA on IUI cycles in the literature.  looked at the relationships between HBA levels and TMC, morphology, and pregnancy outcomes in IUI cycles but found no statistically significant relationships between those factors. This study likewise discovered no statistical association between HBA levels and pregnancy outcomes, supporting  findings. However, our findings showed a significant link between HBA levels and TMC and morphology. HBA can be used along with semen parameters to confirm sperm quality, it should be noted that the binding to HA is associated with sperm maturity but it does not predict the success of IUI in couples who have infertility that is not explained or has a mild male component.
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