Breast engorgement is a common problem that affects the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Limited solutions are available to relieve the discomfort associated with breast engorgement. To compare the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves compresses versus hot compresses for relieving breast engorgement among postnatal mothers. A quasi- experimental study design was used. The study was conducted in the postnatal ward at two selected hospitals in Mansoura city, Dakhalia Governorate, Egypt. A convenient sample of (120) Postnatal mothers with breast engorgement divided into 2 groups. Tool of data collection composed of three parts, I. structured interview questionnaire sheet included socio-demographic data as age, level of education. II: Six point breast engorgement scale were used to assess the severity of pain and engorgement level. III: visual analogue pain rating scale used to assess redness, edema of the breast. There were no statistically significant difference between both groups related to symptoms of breast engorgement & body temperature before intervention while breast temperature, scores of breast engorgement and pain were statistically significant between two groups pre and post intervention, and significant improvements in the breast engorgement and pain scales pre and post intervention, (p < 0.001). This study found that raw cabbage leaves compresses and hot compresses for relieving breast engorgement is easy to perform and is time efficient. Hot compresses are better than raw cabbage leaves compresses to reduced discomfort and relieving breast engorgement among postnatal mothers.
Many studies have revealed that it might be challenging to identify diaphragm injuries after penetrating chest trauma. In order to diagnose and treat diaphragmatic injuries following penetrating thoracic traumas, this study would assess the effectiveness of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 53 patients who underwent VATS procedures in our department between January 2017 and August 2021 among 617 patients who had penetrating thoracic trauma because there was a possibility of diaphragmatic damage. 43 (81.1%) patients were male, and 10 (18.9%) patients were female with a mean age of 28.74±11.9 years (18- 65 years). In 24 (45.3%) patients, VATS was performed on the left side and the others on the left side according to the penetrating area of trauma. In 36 (67.9%) patients, diaphragmatic laceration was detected and was repaired. The missed injury rate was 20.7%. There was no significant statistical difference between etiology of penetrating trauma, ages and gender of patients (p>0.05). No complication was detected during the mean follow up period of 13.57±9.9 (range of 3-6) months. According to our perspective, VATS is crucial and possible in hemodynamically stable individuals who may have an acute diaphragmatic injury following penetrating thoracic trauma but who cannot be diagnosed clinically.
Smoking and OVID-19 may have a very bad effect on lungs because the local defenses are affected and due to the increases in the production of mucus that causes infection particularly in the respiratory system leading to illness. The current review is to provide evidences from previous studies regarding the correlation between tobacco and corona virus. The findings of the previous studies shows that there are a common symptoms that smokers have that share with COVID-19 patients, among them are; inflammation in immune systems, inflammation in lungs and respiratory system, however the risk of mortality in smokers if they are infected with COVID-19 is more than nonsmokers. Smoke and nicotine affect lungs, respiratory and immune systems, both smoke and corona virus share the same effects on the same organs and the same genes affected with smoke and COVID-19.
When blood or plasma is transferred from the unit car to the blood donor unit using a conventional cooler box without any tools to keep the vibration effect down, it is very possible for a decrease in blood quality to occur. An examination is carried out to determine the quality of blood through routine hematological examinations by counting the number of red blood cells and platelets. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of vibration on the number of red blood cells and thrombocytes. The research design was a pre- and post-test with a control group. The sample size for each group was ten tubes of blood. Differences in the number of erythrocytes and platelets were processed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the morphology of erythrocytes and platelets. It has been found that there was a significant difference in the number of erythrocytes between the group that was vibrated at a frequency of 10 Hz and the group that was vibrated at a frequency of 0 Hz and 5 Hz, with p values of 0.00 and 0.00, respectively. There was a significant difference in the number of platelets between the groups that were vibrated with a frequency of 10 HZ compared to the groups that were vibrated with a frequency of 0 HZ and 5 HZ, with p values of 0.003 and 0.022. It is recommended that in the process of transporting blood bags from the location of the mobile unit to UDD, excessive vibration be avoided to maintain blood quality.
The mental foramen is a critical vital landmark located on the lateral surface of the mandible, transmitting the mental neurovascular bundles to the surrounding tissues. The determination of number, shape and location of the mental foramen is necessary to avoid any surgical complication in this area. Usually this foramen is one in number, but accessory foramina are very common. So, this research aims to determine the incidence of these accessory mental foramina in a sample of Kurdish people in Duhok city by using the cone-beam computed tomography. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, 150 CBCT scans of healthy Kurdish people were acquired from the archive of Delight Dental Clinic in Duhok Governorate at the north of Iraq. 69 scans were of males and 81 were of females. The patients' ages ranged between 16 and 79 years old. X-Mind Prime CBCT manufactured by Acteon – Italy was used in acquisition of these scans, for the period from December 2021 to December 2022. The accessory mental foramina were set to double (two in number) and triple (three in number). These accessory mental foramina were studied according to side and gender. The overall incidence of accessory mental foramina was 6.3%. In right side was 5.3% and in left side was 7.3%. In male, the incidence of accessory mental foramina was 8.0% while in female was 4.9%. The accessory mental foramen was common in Kurdish people and the incidence was compatible with that found in several studies on different ethnic groups. The most seen number type of accessory mental foramen was double, and a case of triple was seen. No case with quadruple was noticed.
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