Drug resistance is one of the major issues in the world, and it led to a limitation of treatment options for serious health problems. The present work was achieved to detect the existence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Wound exudates and burn swabs (a total of 1590) were collected from the general hospitals in Al-Najaf city. The recommended biochemical assays were used to detect the Klebsiella spp. and the API 20E system was used to confirm this detection. MIC-strip and disk diffusion methods were used to identify the antibiotics susceptibility pattern and ESBLs were detected phenotypically, while by using the PCR technique, the bla-genes (blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV) were identified. Out of 1590 isolates, 109 (6.9%) isolates of K. pneumoniae were identified, and 4 (3.6%), 32 (29.3%), and 93 (85.3%) isolates were considered as pan-drug resistant (PDR), extensive drug resistant (XDR), and multi-drug resistant (MDR) respectively. ESBL producer isolates were identified in 86% of the isolates. PCR assay identified that 52.3% of the isolates holding one type of bla-genes at least with the predominance of the blaCTX-M gene (35.7%). While the blaOXA gene was detected in 36 (33%) isolates and blaSHV gene was detected in 12 (11%) isolates. From the results of the present study, we concluded the presence of an alarming percentage of isolates of K. pneumoniae that produce ESBL in hospitals of Al-Najaf city and the existence of high rate of CTX-M-ESBL among these isolates.
This study was conducted in (10) areas, six of them in the city of Mosul and four in Badoush area that belong to the Mosul district center, for the purpose of measuring the concentrations of heavy elements (Cu, ZN, Co, Fe, Pb) in the sediments of drinking water and knowing the extent of the effect of these elements on the drinking water in the study area. Some physical and chemical properties of this water were also measured. The results showed that the pH value ranged between (7.5 – 8.4) and the electrical conductivity ranged between (263.3 – 392.4) µs / cm, the temperature ranged between (17 – 18.5) degrees Celsius and the amount of turbidity ranged between (1.26 – 4.81) NTU, and the concentrations of heavy elements Cu were between (ND - 3.69) μg/g, Zn between (ND – 0.52)µg/g, Co (0.78 – 2.83) μg/g, Fe between (2.12 – 8.08) μg/g and Pb (ND – 1.41) μg/g. The results showed that physicochemical parameters were within the limits allowed by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as the concentrations of heavy metals were within the permissible limits, and the results showed a significant increase in iron concentrations in the study areas of Badoush region.
Environmental pollution has been identified as one of the growing up worldwide problems. One of the most affecting kinds of pollution is the noise. The negative impact of noise has been studied on many body systems. Here, the effect of noise pollution on some hematological and biological parameters such as; white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and spleen weight were studied. Twenty-one Sprague Dawley adult male rats (165-185g b.wt) were randomly divided into three groups, 7 rats in each group. The first group was not exposed to noise and considered as control group, second group was exposed to low level of noise (LLN), 50-55 dBA, while the third group was exposed to high level of noise (HLN), 90-95 dBA. The exposure time was 3 hrs per day for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, blood samples and spleens were collected. The results showed that the total count of WBCs, lymphocytes, and monocytes has been increased significantly (P<0.01), (P<0.0001) and direct proportionally with noise level. There was no effect (P>0.05) of LLN on neutrophils, while the HLN showed significant increase (P<0.05) count in comparison with control group. Surprisingly, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in eosinophils counts. Relative spleen weight increased significantly (P<0.01) and (P<0.0001) among the groups with levels of noise pollution. The change in hematological and spleen parameters are considered as negative impact signs on the immune system that most likely caused by noise exposure. Our work clearly showed the impact of noise pollution on the immune system of mammals, it is a very important finding in term of warning the public about the impact of noise pollution and that could be useful for future considerations.
Molecular docking simulation of five (5) compounds synthesized where they are derivatives bearing 1,2,4,triazole moietiy were carried out so as to evaluate their theoretical binding affinities, targeting Overian cancer and also to low scale for other types and the enzyme was Human DNA Topisomerase I (70 KDA) (PDB code:1K4T). The chemical structure of the molecules was accurately drawn using ChemDraw Professional 12.0 software. The designed compounds were checked using Molecular Operating environment software by Checking S.score and Rmsd. The theoretically designed compounds gave good binding interactions with the receptor active pocket and had promising activity with these proteins. Va,Vd,Ve yeilded the highst scores and binding similarity.
Work aim to Synthesis electrolytic decoration of highly aromatic reduced cellulosic graphene (R5-R7), by preparing the diazonium salt, and adding the reduced Nano cellulose graphene (R4), to the ultrasonic device and then adding the amines, this solution was added to the electric cell that contains platinum electrodes with a voltage of 1.6 volts, This compounds were characterization and diagnosed by physical and spectroscopic methods, including melting point measurement, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, DTG, DSC)of Some prepared Nano composites was measured, and The biological activity, which is known to be resistant to antibiotics, which are Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive, and Escherichia coli, gram-negative.
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