Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) presented with diffuse thinning over the entire scalp particularly on the crown. It is nonscarring hair loss characterized by gradual conversion of terminal hair to vellous with follicular miniaturization in a special distribution. It is very common and also increasing with age. The most common age is from 20 to 40years, some women don't experience noticeable thinning until their forty. It affects quality of life and has psychosocial effects. The pathogenesis may be multifactorial related to genetic, hormonal such as the androgen may play a role in FPHL, as women polycystic ovary syndrome had features of early-onset FPHL. On the other hand, the majority of these women have normal androgen levels, which may indicate that the androgen hormones aren’t the only factors. Female pattern hair loss is characterized by diffuse thinning of the central and parietal region with preservation of the frontal hair line. This review describes the clinical features, diagnosis, and also, treatment of FPHL.
L-lysine is one of nine necessary amino acids for human and animal nutrition. In animals, Llysine is considered necessary and must be supplied from dietary sources. Two hundred and fifty clinical specimens were collected from different clinical sources. Twenty-two isolates (8.8%) were identified as Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of S. aureus isolates to produce lysine was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates under study had the ability to produce lysine at different concentrations. The optimal conditions for the production of lysine were tested, in which 37 °C was the best temperature. The optimum pH was 7.4. The optimum incubation period for lysine production was 72 hours. The purification was done using affinity ion exchange chromatography on amberlite IR-120. The total amount of purified lysine was 473 mg/L. The effect of lysine on human blood clotting (13 coagulation factors) may be on coagulation factors (XII, XI, IX, VIII, and X) of the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Also, lysine may be on extrinsic coagulation factors (VII) and common coagulation factors (X, V, 1, and II), inferred by PT, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen tests.
Infertility is a serious emotional and social issue that affects people all over the world. Bacteriospermia is one of the possible causes of poor sperm quality. There is, however, no complete agreement on the premises' negative role in bacterial semen infection and male infertility. The study's goal was to examine semen specimens using the Vitek 2 Compact system after isolation of bacteria by the culture method, followed by confirmation utilizing molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to discover 16sr RNA gene bacteria in the semen and gene sequence. A total of 100 semen samples were collected from infertile men attending Kamal Al-Sammrai Hospital in Baghdad during the period from May 25, 2020, to October 15, 2020. Seminal bacterial diagnosis was done by the Vitek 2 Compact system after isolation of bacteria by the culture method, followed by molecular investigations including bacterial DNA extraction from more dominant pathogenic causes. Gene amplification was done for gene amplification, and gene sequencing was applied to confirm the presence of specific 16s rRNA gene amplification. The current study showed that 43 isolates were sterile and 57 cultures had bacterial growth isolates. A high percentage of positive bacterial cultures of infertile men occurred at age (20–30) and (30–40) at an equal percentage (40%). The positive bacterial culture group (57.0%) has (43.0% primary infertility and 14.0% secondary infertility), whereas the negative bacterial culture group (43.0%) has (32.0% primary infertility and 11.0% secondary infertility). There were 38 Gram positive cocci (38.00%) and 19 (19.00%) were Gram negative bacilli. The commonest isolates were Escherichia coli (19.78%), followed by Staphylococcus warneri (17.54%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (12.28%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (10.52%), and 3.50% each for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Finally, Streptococcus agalactiae, Raoultella ornithinolytica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa each received 1.75%. Molecular analysis revealed that of the 16 isolated, 8 (50%) were compatible with bacterial isolates isolated by the Vitek 2 Compact system and 8 (50%) were different in bacterial species that were diagnosed by the Vitek 2 Compact system. The bacteria Citrobacter freundii strain bright 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence (Accession no. OM538425.1) isolated from infertile patients' sperm was recorded for the first time in GenBank. Escherichia coli were isolated to be the commonest organisms followed by Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus aureus and molecular biology methods (PCR) aid in confirming the detection and identification of bacteria in semen specimens.
The goal was to see how the epidemic affected global respiratory suffering and how it affected vulnerable groups. Also, to describe the interaction between the corona virus and the respiratory system after recovery, as well as the gender differences. A total of 200 patients from six regions of southern and central Iraq answered the questionnaires over the course of four months, with post-covid-19 symptoms in both genders in clinical private and hospital COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and followed until they recovered. An online survey was used to evaluate physiological and respiratory signs and symptoms. Physiological disturbances included loss of smell and taste in nearly 70% of participants and hearing in 38%, while respiratory disturbances included cough in around 60% of participants, fibrosis in 50% of participants, wheeze in 74% of people, and RDS in 66% of participants. Post-Covid-19 patients show higher levels of loss of smell and taste as well as high percent of respiratory disturbances included cough, fibrosis, wheeze, and RDS. When compared to the female gender, the male gender with Covid-19 suffers from physiological and respiratory disturbances.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide metabolic disease. Type 2 DM is usually associated with several complications like coronary artery disease, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis which is considered as a part of macrovascular complications of diabetic patients, is thought to be happened as a result of vascular infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes with adhesion molecules. These adhesion molecules including VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 which act as atherosclerosis markers and can be isolated from the endothelium and measured in peripheral blood. In addition, it was found that insulin resistance may play a role in endothelial dysfunction where insulin stimulates the release of the adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus and the safety of anti-hyperglycemic medications on the cardiovascular function in diabetic patients and compare it with the healthy individuals by measuring VCAM-1. About 58 male and female diabetic patients were enrolled in this study (30 patients were already receiving anti-diabetic medications and the 28 patients were just newly diagnosed as DM patients and not yet received treatments), in addition to 30 individuals as healthy control group. The patients' samples were collected from the National Diabetic Center/Al-Mustansiriyah University at the period between March/2017 and May/2017. The mean age for all groups was nearly the same, it was about (52.02 ± 0.81) and the mean BMI for all groups was about (28.77 ± 0.34). Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c were all measured for all the three groups. Insulin and VCAM-1 were measured using ELISA technique. In the present study, it was found that there was a high significant difference in the mean VCAM-1 seen in the control group (22.27 ± 0.94) compared with that seen in the newly diagnosed DM patients (18.95 ± 0.58) where (P=0.01), with no significant difference when compared with the mean of already DM patients group receiving treatments (21.08 ± 0.72) besides no significant statistical relationship between means of VCAM-1 of the two DM groups. VCAM-1 showed a negative significant correlation with insulin (P=0.05). From this study, it was observed that VCAM-1 was within normal level when compared with that of healthy control or even below the normal which means that DM is not necessarily associated with increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and this dysfunction might be related with some other factors like genes, environmental conditions or other underlying disease states.
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