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Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences

Journal ID : BNIHS-09-03-2022-10160
Title : Trends in skin cancer Incidence in Iraq during the period 2000-2019
Abstract :

There is a lack of information on the prevalence of skin cancer in Iraq. This study aimed to explore the skin cancer trend in Iraq from 2000 to 2019. Based on data from the Iraq Cancer Registry (ICR) from 2000 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) were calculated for skin cancer using the world standard population, in addition to the age-specific incidence rates. The Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate the average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in skin cancer incidence rates and their statistically significant differences for each linear segment for the whole study period (2000-2019), four 5-year periods (2000-2004, …, and 2015-2019), and by year for all ages combined (0-70+ years), for the age groups (0-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ years), and for males and females separately. In Iraq from 2000 to 2019, the ASIR of skin cancer in both sexes and all ages was 4.144/100,000 people during the study period. In males, the ASIRs increased significantly from 2000 to 2019 with an AAPC of +2.069%. While in females, the incidence increased significantly with an AAPC of +2.206%. The highest incidences of skin cancer cases were observed in elderly individuals (70+), with an AAPC of +2.481% for males and 3.863% for females. This study has shown an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Iraq. Our results may be beneficial in improving the planning for the control and prevention and early detection of skin cancer in Iraq.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-08-03-2022-10159
Title : Pancreatic Disorders in Patients with Ulcerative colitis.
Abstract :

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a recurrent chronic intestinal illness categorized into two subtypes. Crohn's disease (CD) with ulcerative colitis (UC). Multiple organ systems can be affected by IBD, and pancreatic symptoms of UC are not uncommon. Numerous pancreatic illnesses are more prevalent in UC patients than in the general population. Pancreatic symptoms in UC are diverse, ranging from mild and self-limiting diseases to serious illnesses. Amylase and/or lipase levels are frequently elevated asymptomatic. In this review, the estimation of the enzyme lipase and amylase and the discussion of possible causes for the elevation can be considered as one of the most important ways to assist the specialist in diagnosing UC patients before resorting to endoscopy.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-08-03-2022-10157
Title : Urinary Nephrin Level as a Biomarker of Lupus Nephritis Activity among Egyptian Patients
Abstract :

The transmembrane protein nephrin that plays an essential role in both structural and signalling functions for the podocyte. Our study aimed to evaluate the utility of urinary nephrin level as a biomarker of renal activity in patients with lupus nephritis. This study included prospective clinical and pathological evaluation of 32 adult patients with the clinical diagnosis of lupus nephritis. Clinical and laboratory assessment included: Full history taking, routine clinical examination, SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), urinary nephrin levels measurement using ELISA technique, serum creatinine, serum albumin, liver function tests, urinary 24-hour protein, anti-dsDNA titre, ESR and CRP. Median (interquartile) of urinary nephrin level were 255 (275-290) ng/ml. Urinary nephrin level was not significantly different between males and females (P: 1). Also, it was not significantly correlated with age (rho: -0.004, P: 0.9), serum creatinine, 24 hour urinary protein. Regarding pathological parameters, urinary nephrin level was not significantly correlated with either activity index, chronicity index, or the individual score of lesions of activity or chronicity. Value of urinary nephrin level may be influenced by the used method for measurement. The utility of this biomarker among Egyptian patients with lupus nephritis still needs further validation.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-07-03-2022-10156
Title : Assessment of CA 15-3 and P53 biomarkers in diagnosis of breast cancer
Abstract :

Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous categorization of diseases which is on the increase in Basra/Iraq. Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is frequently used tumor biomarker (TM) in metastatic breast cancer but may not be elevated. Conventional, diagnosis of breast cancer is achieved by clinical examination and histopathological confirmation. Therefore this study aim to estimate the role of CA -15-3 in diagnosis and confirming the diagnosis breast cancer. Present study included (51) women diagnosed with breast cancer. In study population age ranged from (30-70 years) old. The control group has consisted of (32) healthy women. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was once used to measure Serum CA 15-3, p53. The study referred a raised amount of (CA15-3) in breast cancer patients (82.14±66.22) in comparison to healthy control group (8.72±2.06). Conversely, the data of this study were illustrated opposite result that there is a significance decrease P53 level in serum (P<0.01) in BC patients in comparison to healthy group. The current study appeared that there is a high significant increase (P value < 0.001) in CA 15- 3 levels in BC patients at stage III in comparison to coming primary stages; while P53 has decreased in the progressive stages. Regarding BC of patients. While there was no significant difference in the levels of biomarkers despite the progression of the grads of the disease. That there is an increase in the biomarker (CA15.3) in women with breast cancer, while there is a decrease in P53 in breast cancer patients, may be helpful as prognosis in diagnosis of breast cancer patients.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-07-03-2022-10155
Title : Stem Cell Treatment in Cardiology: A Mini Review
Abstract :

For many decades, peoples believe that heart is non-proliferative organ. Once damage, it can’t reverse its function. Function of the heart will decrease alongside reduction number of functional cardiomyocytes. Presently, the therapy’s objective is to preserve the heart function with long-life medicine and/or cardiac intervention/surgery. There is evidence that a fraction of cardiomyocytes may reenter the cell cycle and that partial regeneration can occur by recruiting stem cells. Furthermore, endogenous repair mechanisms imply that cardiac repair may be therapeutically accomplished in clinical settings. Extensive research is being done to explain their efficacy and practical use. However, some clinicians may consider these novel ideas as mere curiosities and many limitations found from current treatment protocols, especially in adverse condition. This article is a mini review about stem cell treatment for some cardiovascular disease, some evidence in invitro studies and their challenges and hopes for cardiovascular treatment in the future.

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