It has been demonstrated that the most common risk factors for gallstones formations are fatty diet, carbohydrate diet, age, female gender, obesity and rapid weight change. However, information regarding prevalence and significant risk factors of the mentioned disease still restricted in AL-Kut city. Determine main risk factors in patients with gallstones among AL-Kut city population, Wasit, Iraq. Sample population of present study consists of two groups; control (n=100), and individuals diagnosed with gallstones (n=100). Notably, people in both groups were selected from Al-Karama teaching hospital in AL-Kut city following consent signing up in order to participate in this study via filling the questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 26. Each group had a total of 100 individuals. Percentages of females were 46% and 71% in control and case groups respectively. We also found that 47% and 49% of females in both groups (control and case respectively) have had previous pregnancy. Moreover, percentage of smoker individuals was 35% in control, while it was only 12 in case groups. In our study population, both groups had similar BMIs, with 59 % of the control group and 62 % of the cases group having a BMI of greater than 24 kg/m2. In the category "rapid weight change," there was a significant difference between the two groups: 23 percent of the controls had a weight change, either gain or loss, whereas 51% of the cases had a rapid weight change. The control group consumed fat (3%) and carbohydrate (12%) less than the cases group when it came to the type of diet they chose to eat (31%, 26% percent respectively). The control group consumed a mixed diet (68%) more than the cases group (27%). After using multivariate regression analysis, age between 20-45 years (OR - 2.726, p value- 0.001), female gender (OR - 2.874, p value - 0.000) and rapid weight change (OR - 3.484, p value - 0.000), previous pregnancy (OR -1.909, p value -0.021), fatty diet (OR-14.527, p value 0.000), carbohydrate diet (OR-2.577, p value 0.011) were found to be independent risk factors for development of gallstones. The main risk factors for gallstones are female gender, previous pregnancy, age ranging from 20-45 years, rapid weight change and diet rich in fat and carbohydrate.
Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision (cut) on the anterior (front) side of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision into the trachea (windpipe). The resulting stoma (hole) can serve independently as an airway or as a site for a tracheal tube or tracheostomy tube to be inserted; this tube allows a person to breathe without the use of the nose or mouth . The study aims to determine the level of clinical knowledge about tracheostomy care among nurses at intensive care unit at Al-Imam Al-Hussein Medical City in Holy Karbala'a City and to find out the relationship between socio- demographic characteristics which of age, gender, level of education, years of experience, years of experience in ICU and participation in a training course about tracheostomy care. A descriptive quantitative approach is conducted to assess the nurses’ clinical knowledge toward patients with tracheostomy of nurses who work in Al-Imam Al-Hussein Medical City, in holy Kerbala’a City, Iraq. The study started in 3rd of May, 2020 and ended in 25th of May, 2021. The study instrument consisted of two parts; part one deals with the characteristics of the sample which of age, gender, level of education, year of experiences in nursing, year of experiences in intensive care units and specific training course. Part two deals with the nurses’ clinical knowledge concerning tracheostomy installation and management which was 36 items. The validity of instrument was obtained from 11 experts in specialty. The reliability was =1.00. The data analysis was done by using SPSS program version 23. the statistical methods which used in present study is descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of present study revealed that the nurses’ responses about general knowledge toward patients with tracheostomy is as of 57.81%, M.S = 12.66. The nurses’ responses about clinical knowledge toward patients with tracheostomy is as of 67.01%, M.S = 73.57. The study concluded that the nurses’ knowledge about tracheostomy installation and management was good. The researcher recommends increasing the training courses and workshops related to the importance of tracheostomy procedure to avoid errors. And also introduce the subject of the present study in the curriculum of nursing colleges to improve the students’ knowledge.
The experiment was conducted for the 2019-2020 growing season. This study aimed to study the effect of spraying of vitamin B3 and the amino acid glycine and their interference on some growth indicators of celery plant; it is included the using three concentrations of the vitamin (0.75,150) mg.L-1 and three concentrations of glycine (0,50,100) mg.L-1. The experiment was designed according to Randomized Complete Blocks Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates for each treatment. The averages were compared using the least significant difference (LSD) at a probability level (0.05), and the following results were revealed. 1- Vitamin B3 at different concentrations resulted in a significant increase in all the studied features, as the concentration of 75 mg.L-1 of the vitamin effect on plant height and number of leaves, while the concentration 150 mg.L-1 effect on root length, nitrogen rate, Phosphorous rate, magnesium rate, iron content, leaf content of chlorophyll and protein content. 2- The results indicated that the effect of the amino acid glycine at different concentrations caused a significant increase in all plant growth indicators (plant height, root length, number of leaves, nitrogen rate, phosphorus rate, magnesium rate, iron rate, leaf content of chlorophyll and protein rate. 3- The effect of the overlap between the two study factors was significant in all the studied traits, as the combination between 75 mg.L-1 of vitamin and 50 mg.L-1 of glycine has greater effect on plant height and number of leaves, while the combination between 150 mg.L-1 of vitamin and 50 mg.L-1 of glycine in was with greater effect on root length, nitrogen rate, phosphorous rate, magnesium rate, iron rate, leaf content of chlorophyll, protein rate.
This study aims to estimate the amount of solid waste produced by an individual and to evaluate and analyze the solid waste problem in the city of Mosul, The study included all areas of the right side of the city of Mosul, and in each residential district, two sites were randomly selected, where samples are collected on a daily basis after distributing the bags to the specified sites, or for a period of four months, as the results of the research conducted in the year ( 2021-2022) showed that The right side of the city of Mosul produces approximately (527) tons per day of municipal solid waste, which contains four municipal sectors. The results of the study, through the field survey process, showed that the study area contains more than 370 waste dumps within residential neighborhoods, which occupy an area of more than 11774 m2. The largest among the components, with a percentage of (64.52%), plastic, nylon (7.35%), paper and cardboard (8.39%), glass (3.47%), metals (2.18%), textiles (2.46%), wood (2.21%), and nappies (9.46%), Therefore, some of them must be recycled and others re-used and treated to produce other materials, thus reducing the volume of waste and producing other materials such as organic fertilizers and soil conditioners, and in the end we reduce the use of land as landfill sites, as well as providing an economic resource for the city and the country in general.
Preliminary literature review on Baghdad's aging population and the authors’ experiences have demonstrated that the challenges associated with aging process have not been given much attention. Anti-aging plants which have been associated with health promoting properties have been utilized as interventions to curb the aging process. This has been achieved as they contain active ingredients which have been scientifically proven to have medicinal and antiaging properties through various laboratory species as previously reported. This study sought to identify these phytochemicals both quantitatively and qualitatively using different techniques. Three plants, Apium graveolens, Carthamus tinctorious and Punica granatum were obtained at a local market in Baghdad and extracted with water. The resultant mixture was purified by a whatman paper and the solvent dried using a spray dryer. The resultant residue was kept for further analysis. Qualitative method of screening different phytochemicals among them tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenols, resins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, proteins, coumarins, terpenes and steroids was done. The methanolic extracts were further screened using GC-MS and their mass spectrum compared with compounds from the database library. Separation and identification of the three extracts was also done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and mineral analysis of selenium, zinc and calcium were conducted using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. GC-MS results revealed that Safflower had the highest number of major compounds while celery plant had the least. In safflower Triisobutyl (3-phenylpropoxy) silane was the highest in concentration at 16.73% while in celery plant the highest active component was 1H-Indole at a concentration of 16.37%. In pomegranate plant, the highest active component was 6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester with a concentration of 20.24%. HPLC analysis did not reveal the six standards used in this study for safflower and pomegranate plants however, in celery plant resverastrol, b-sistine and rutin were identified at concentrations of 4.93%, 16.09% and 5.22 % respectively. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that safflower and pomegranate exhibited similar trend in all the phytochemicals and also there presence was more compared to celery plant. Selenium ion was not detected although zinc was found but in minute concentrations. Calcium ion was also detected in high concentrations although it was significantly lower in pomegranate plant at 35.4%. In conclusion, GC-MS profiling of the phytochemicals among the three plants revealed varying components with different concentrations. This was also reflected on the qualitative determinations although pomegranate and safflower exhibited similar occurrence of the phytochemicals.
Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved | Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences