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Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences

Journal ID : BNIHS-17-03-2022-10202
Title : A theoretical and practical study to assess the toxicity of drugs used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia
Abstract :

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is an a myelopolifrative disorder characterized by the presence of an acquired mutation which affects the hematopoietic stem cell. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether (imatinib or nilotinib) which are not harmful when used for long years. Theoretically, the Hyper Chem program was used to extract data (QSAR) to determine drug toxicity, which includes (Surface area, volume, Refractivity, Hydration energy, Partial charges, Polarizability, Mass, log P). And using this data in the PIC50 equation to extract to calculate the half - maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). In the practical part. The analyzes that containing (GOT, GPT, GSH, and NF-KB), was used to analyze 35 sample patients were classified as receiving imatinib treatment and 35 sample patients were classified as receiving nilotinib treatment. We found in the drug imatinib the IC50 value was (1.258) the value was significantly lower than the value of nilotinib (3.732). A high proportion of (GOT, GPT, GSH, and NF-KB) was found in the group using nilotinib. It was proven that imatinib is an effective and safe treatment when used for many years.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-16-03-2022-10201
Title : Expression of the BRCA2 Mechanism Gene EMSY in Breast Cancer
Abstract :

In spite of the relevance of (BRCA2) breast cancer gene 2 which gene for suppression of cancer in hereditary malignancies of breast and ovarian is well recognized. The discovery of EMSY, a recent protein binding to BRCA2, as a possible Oncogene implies that the (breast cancer gene 2) system has a role in non- hereditary (sporadic) malignancies. The study's aim is determining the attendance of EMSY mutation in breast cancer. 60 patients diagnosed with breast cancer, classified according to the genotype, age, family history, aggressive type of breast cancer and other types of tumors associated with EMSY gene. This study was based in PCR sequencing to determine the attendance of EMSY mutation. Incidence of breast cancer occurred in 37 % patients aged 25-40 years old, while incidence of metastatic breast cancer was 53% of cases, incidence of linkage of EMSY gene to BRACA2 in cases of breast cancer was: 73%, incidence of linkage of EMSY gene to BRACA2 in cases of breast cancer was: 43% with positive family history of breast cancer , incidence of linkage of EMSY gene to BRACA2 in cases of stage 4 breast cancer was: 68.2 and incidence of linkage of EMSY gene to BRACA2 in cases of other types of cancer was: 22.7% with ovarian cancer. The EMSY gene has been linked to a poor outcome in cases of metastatic breast cancer. To confirm that EMSY is over presented in primary breast and ovarian tumors, more evidence is required.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-16-03-2022-10200
Title : LEVELS OF PROLACTIN AND THYROID HORMONES IN WOMEN WITH NIPPLE DISCHARGE SYNDROME IN BASRA, IRAQ
Abstract :

Nipple discharge (ND) is a common presentation in breast medicine and comes as the third reason for consultation after breast pain and palpable masses. The aim of the current study is to determine the independent association of prolactin, T3, T4, TSH with female characteristics, clinical prognosis, etc. in a group of affected women with ND syndrome. A retrospective descriptive study on the clinical and laboratory results of prolactin, T3, T4 and TSH hormones data for year of 2020 were obtained from the department of obstetrics and gynecology of Al-Sadr hospital/ Basra/ Iraq. The levels of these hormones were deteremined by ELISA technique. Low level T4, T3 and TSH occurred in 64.7%, 15.7%, and 21.6% respectively. Elevated prolactin occurred in 70.6% of tested females while the rest showed normal level. There was association between low level of TSH and hyperprolactinemia as the associated OR was 5.3 times. T3 and TSH results were significantly high in the all age groups (2.43 mean difference) and a P. value of >0.05 while T4 was significantly high in the (60-69 yrs) subgroup and low in the subgroup <20 yrs. Generally the highest mean difference was seen in the T4 (75.07) while the highest mean difference for the three hormones was seen in the (60-69 years) subgroup. Most of the ND patients had hyperprolactinemia with overt hypothyroidism, as well as in those with subclinical hypothyroidism. ND is partly a hormonal disorder, and there is a close association between the hormones of T3, T4 and TSH and ND. However, there was no independent association between prolactin, T3, T4, and TSH with female characteristics, breast tumors or clinical diagnosis.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-16-03-2022-10199
Title : Latent and reactivation Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause severe fetal sequelae despite pre-conceptional immunity
Abstract :

Evidences had documented a causal relationship between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and Bad Obstetrical History (BOH). However, a recurrent or latent CMV infection or altered immune response to CMV is resulted in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is unsolved. We investigated CMV infection and antibodies to CMV after urea treatment in women with Bad Obstetric History (BOH). This case-control study was conducted on 143 women with BOH recruited to gynecology and obstetrics department clinic in Benghazi (Libya). Patients were evaluated for anti CMV IgG and IgM antibodies and IgG urea treatment using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Student’s t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Two cases (1.4%) of positive anti-CMV IgM was detected in each group. Anti-CMV IgG positivity was more frequent in patients (39.9%. there was Big significant differences between the habitual abortion (HA) group compared to the other BOH manifestations. IgG concentration was significantly higher in HA seropositive cases than seropositive BOH patients. We found that previous exposure to CMV was significantly higher in patients with Habitual abortion than the other BOH group. Moreover, association was found between IgG urea treatment and HA. Further investigations are under way to find whether latent CMV infection starts an indirect process of autoimmune etiology in RPL or women with RPL have recurrent or reactivation of CMV infection.

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Journal ID : BNIHS-16-03-2022-10198
Title : Genotyping of Esherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections using ERIC method
Abstract :

Twenty isolates of Echerichia coli were obtained out of (55) isolates collected from urinary tract infections patients in Baghdad governorate and from different hospitals. The results detected E. coli in females at (80%) and in males at (20%); also the percentage of E. coli in terms of age showed that the rate of infection was highest in the ages of 30-39 years with a percentage of (35%) and the lowest percentage of infection wasin the range 20-29 years with a percentage of (18%), while the ages of 40-49 and 50-60 years recorded (25%) and (22%) respectively. The resistance of E. coli to (15) antibiotics was studied, and the results revealed it is resistance to Ceftazidime (86%), Ciprofloxcin (50%), Tobramicin (40%), Gentamicin (41%), Nitrofurantion (5%), Augmentin (86%), Tetracycline (70%), Imipenem (20%), meropenem (94%), Rifampcin (99%), carbencillin (98%), Cefriaxone (50%), Levofloxacin (30%), Ampicillin (95%), and Amikacin (14%). Genotyping of bacterial isolates was performed to find out the genetic relationships between the collected isolates by using ERIC-PCR technique. The results of this study found that there are 14 genotypes containing seven groups, each group containing genetically close bacterial isolates, while the other isolates contain different genotypes.

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