The aim of this study was to describe and comparison the histological features of the small intestine of rabbit that was herbivorous and rat that was omnivorous. The study was carried out on (10) samples of the small intestine of health adult local rabbit and rat, immediately after slaughtering, the samples were taken from the different parts of (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), five specimens was taken from each region and fixed in 10% formalin for 24 hours, then treated by routine histological technique and the sections were stained by H &E, PAS, Toluidine blue, Safranin O, and Masson's trichrome to differentiate their different components. The present study showed the mean total thickness of the mucosa tunica in rabbit small intestine was thicker than that in rat, the duodenum had maximum thickness of the mucosa. The villi were variable in the appearance, high and wide; shape of the villi in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in rabbit were taller leaf- like, conical and club shaped respectively, while in rat were taller finger, slender ridge and short finger like respectively; thickness of the submucosa tunica in rat small intestine was thicker than that in rabbit, the duodenum had maximum thickness of the submucosa; in rabbit the Brunner glands found in the submucosa of initial parts of the duodenum only, and absent in ascending part of duodenum, while in rat these glands extend near the jejunum, Peyer’s patch found through the submucosa of the ileum. Thickness of the muscularis and serosa tunicae in rabbit small intestine was thicker than that in rat, the ileum had maximum thickness each of \muscularis and serosa. There was difference in thickness of histological layers, also in shape and distribution of the villi and Brunner glands in the small intestine of rabbit and rat.
The management of malignant biliary obstruction of the liver is a challenging clinical problem. Because achieving a complete cure is rare and life expectancy is usually short, palliation of symptoms is often the best option for patients with this condition. Biliary decompression can be achieved through surgical bypass or nonsurgical methods. Recent advances in therapeutic endoscopy and interventional radiology have generally replaced surgical treatment, with its high operative risks. These effective and relatively non-invasive modalities have become the standard of care for palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. To highlight the role of percutaneous stenting in management of malignant biliary obstruction. This study was conducted in Theodor bilharz research institute (TBRI), Egypt in collaboration with radiology department in Ain Shams University. Twenty-four patients who are referred with clinically suspected and diagnosed with malignant obstructive jaundice. This study included patients from the period between from September 2019 to September 2021. The results of this study demonstrate that, in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice, initial ERCP and initial percutaneous transhepatic stenting result in similar rates of successful biliary decompression with comparable adverse event rates. Specifically, with the initial procedure, there was no difference in the procedural success, incidence of cholangitis, and other procedure related complications. The percutaneous approach for stent insertion should be considered as the initial method of palliation for patients with advanced and difficult Bismuth types III and IV HC because of its higher procedural success rate and comparable clinical outcomes.
The number of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit (packed cell volume), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were the hematological parameters examined in this study. The key features of quantitative physical and functional properties of erythrocytes, as well as their correlations among people with different genotypes of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion-deletion I/D polymorphism gene were investigated. The study was performed with venous blood was taken from 100 healthy female students aged 20-24 years, which was used to study the morphological and functional characteristics of erythrocytes and for the genotyping technique. The size of erythrocytes, their fullness with hemoglobin, and their osmotic resistance are all determined by genotype. When the I allele was present in the genotype, a link was found between the number of erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and the stability of erythrocyte membranes. When the II genotype was present, a link was found between the number of erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and the stability of erythrocyte membranes. The average volume of erythrocytes is lower in girls with the II genotype of the ACE gene, and hemoglobin saturation and osmotic resistance are higher than in girls with the D allele.
Candida Albicans is considered an opportunistic fungus which affects human as it may cause infections for different parts of the human body, during this study, this type of fungi has been isolated from the genital area for some pregnant women at Gynecology and Obstetrics department / Al Batool teaching hospital / Mosul city. Certain methods have been used to confirm the presence of this fungus; some methods were by inspection through the clinical examination while others were microscopically done. All isolates that have been collected at the mentioned hospital were compared with the standard isolates of the same fungus at the Laboratory department / Mosul Technical Institute. These procedures were done at different periods during 2019 as they were done between January to May inclusively. An antagonist properties for mint and Garlic extracts were examined against the growth of Candida Albicans through the exposure of Candida Albicans culture to saturated tablets with the extracts of both Mint and Garlic with daily monitoring as the results showed that the fungus growth has been ceased completely after 8 days, moreover, during the monitoring phase there was gradual distance between the Fungus and the saturated tablets with extracts which means that the plant extracts obviously affected the fungus growth but with different levels of affection.
The psychological problems among the juvenile delinquents are common and had serious effect on their life style and behaviors. So, the juveniles are more vulnerable to psychological problems. The study aimed to identify and detect the psychological problems among juveniles delinquent who brought to Al-Najaf Juveniles Delinquent Court and severity on them. Descriptive study (cross-sectional) conducted in Al-Najaf Juveniles Delinquent Court and the non-probability sample included about 54 juveniles delinquent who is judgment by Probation Officer in specific duration and place. The study used brief symptoms inventory 53 items scale and questionnaire about their demographics characteristics that related to the study. The study finds majority of juveniles had some psychological problems like paranoid and psychoticism had the highest rated among them about (59.3%) and followed by phobic, depression and anxiety approximately by (50%) of them; then Hostility Somatization, Obsession compulsion about (40%) and finally the additional domains by (18.5%). While the all juveniles reported were not used illegal drugs. The study concluded that majority of them were healthy as physically and not used the alcoholic and drugs, as well as, some of them had a symptoms of psychological problems and needs to investigate and confirm by psychiatric specialist in the mental health unit. The study recommended to make the psychotherapy as a part of procedures of justice system laws and activate the psychiatric unit and early detection of psychiatric symptoms among children and youth in program of primary health care system.
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