Typhoid is an infection caused by Salmonella typhi, these type of bacteria exist in the intestines of humans. When Salmonella typhi spreads from person to person by contact with an infected person or its feces. The present study is designed to determine the levels of interleukin-17A in Iraqi patients with typhoid fever infection in Babylon province. 50 clinical samples were collected from the blood of patients with typhoid fever who attended Al-Hillah Surgical Teaching Hospital and private laboratories in AL-Hillah/Babylon province during the period from February to August 2021. This study comprised 50 seemingly healthy control individuals who appeared healthy and disease-free individuals. The average age of the patients ± standard deviation was 36.66±12.32 years old, with a range of 15-65 years old. The study shows the percentage distribution of the two study groups based on gender that there were 32 cases for males and 18 cases for females. The mean interleukin-17A concentration in the serum of patients ± standard deviation was 27.06±8.76 pg/ml while the concentration in the serum of control ± standard deviation was 13.41±5.27 pg/ml. There were significant differences when compared with the control group.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment on micro-tensile bond strength between natural dentition and ceramic using two different luting agents. The extracted premolars were collected and cleansed of debris by placing them in 1% hydrogen peroxide solution and stored in 0.5% Chloramine T at room temperature and the teeth were embedded in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin. A total of 40 samples were made and divided into Group-I (self-adhesive) and Group-II conventional luting agents. Each group is again subdivided into A-control (no surface treatment), B-acid etching (5%HF), C-sand Blasting (Al2O3 110 μm), D-both acid etching and sandblasting and 5 samples were made in each group. The micro-tensile bond test was performed with a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min cross head speed. The values were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Mann-Whitney U Test showed the comparison between Group-I and Group-II with significant value P 0.223 which reveals that there is no significant difference between two Groups and Kruskal-Wallis Test for comparison between the subgroups showed the significant value P <0.001, hence there was significant difference between the subgroups. Hydrofluoric acid etching produces more micro-tensile bond strength between ceramic and teeth than any other surface treatments for both conventional and self- adhesive luting agent.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a rare neurodevelopmental turmoil categorized by the wide spectrum of deficits in public speech, behavior, and communication. There are numerous theories concerning action of ASD but the main etiology of ASD stay unidentified. The period from May to October in 2020, fifty-two kids were involved in this study. They were 40 males and 12 females who are suffering from ASD. They were from Basra and their ages were ranged from (6-12 yrs). According to Arabic version of Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Their damage were categorized from mild into moderate. They weren't suffering from any physical or mental disorder, even they have no family psychiatric history. EEG test (electroencephalogram) used to evaluation of the autistic children to exclude any abnormal discharges which may not clinically detected (not cause seizure), the abnormality may appear as, focal or general cerebral slowing, focal or general epileptical discharges. This study aimed to compare groups of abnormal EEG finding in ASD children in relation with CARS test values. The comparative data revealed no significant difference between means of the demographic data (age, gender, BMI, EEG), the comparison of means of normal and abnormal EEG finding with CARS test show no significant difference, also the comparison of means of different types of abnormal EEG with CARS test also show no significant difference.
A statistical study on the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in the city of Baghdad during the COVID-19 pandemic (May 2020 to September 2021) was conducted by this paper. Data were collected from women whose ages ranged between 18-38 years, their gestation period ranged from 3-9 months and from visitors to 85 private clinics and laboratories in the capital, Baghdad, on both sides of Rusafa and Karkh. The results of the disease studied were obtained by performing a CBC test. While the chronic diseases that were observed in the sample women were diabetes and hypertension. The obtained results showed that nearly 34% of pregnant women suffer from anemia as a result of a low level of iron in their bodies, and 13% of them suffer from moderate anemia and 7% from severe anemia, while the percentage of pregnant women who did not know that they had this disease is 57%. The study noted that approximately 72% of the affected women did not suffer from any chronic diseases and that 62% of them had diabetes. The study also indicated a clear decrease in cases in the first two months of the study period and that the number of anemic women in 2020 was lower than for the same time period in 2021. The study showed that 47% of the infected women had one of their fathers with the disease.
The purpose of this study was to develop novel dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays fabricated from hyaluronic acid (HA) as a material and to estimate the effect of hyaluronic acid concentration, molecular weight, amount of loaded drug and on the mechanical properties of MN arrays. In this study, a model drug that belongs to BCS class IV with decreased water solubility and permeability through the skin. MN arrays mechanical strength was increased by increasing the molecular weight. indicating that they could puncture the skin and create drug permeation pathways successfully. Dissolution properties and the effect of the presence of tween 80 in the formulation also was estimated in this research. PH of the polymeric MNs solution was found to be 7.4 indicating the ability of using the MNs over the skin without causing irritation. Reduced concentration of the drug affected the mechanical strength of MNs positively. These findings indicated that using novel MN arrays fabricated from hyaluronic acid (HA) is a very useful and effective strategy to improve the transdermal delivery of drugs.
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