Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a globally epidemic metabolic disorder with a global prevalence of 8.4%, with the highest levels (9.2%) reported in the Middle East region. This high prevalence is expected to continue rising in the future. The aim of this study was to assess the type II diabetic patients’ self-care practices need. A quasi-experimental design was used to conduct the study. The investigator develops the program and instruments to accomplish the study's objectives. A sum of 50 patients were purposely selected (50) patients who were exposed to sample. The validity of the instrument was assured through a board of experts, and the instrument's reliability was established through making pilot study which. The data was analyzed throught using descriptive and inferential statistics for the Knowledge 20 items 0.82. Self-care 30 items 0.76. 0.81. That considered acceptable result as instrument stability. The study findings indicated that illustrated the level of knowledge on the sample showed that certain groups at the pre- test whih period accounted to poor level at all studied items (M.s.= 1-1.66) except the first item for which the responses were fair knowledge (M.s.=1.67-2.33). The majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have a knowledge deficit, and patients also have a knowledge deficit when it comes to self-care. The community and non-governmental groups can be used to raise broad public awareness of this hazardous and chronic condition. Encourage patients to follow up and keep their knowledge level up to date in order to avoid the most complications.
Diabetes mellitus especially type II has recently become serious disease with high possibility of increased rate of comorbidity since it is along life disease which requires a person with adequate knowledge regarding the diseases itself as well as good self –care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the knowledge of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. A quasi- experimental design was used to conduct the study. The investigator develops the program and instruments to accomplish the study's objectives. A sum of 50 patients were purposely selected divided in to groups. The Study Groups (25) patients who were exposed to the education program as Study Groups, and the Control Groups (25) who were not. The effectiveness of this program is measured by the use of a knowledge pre-post -test that includes (20) items and self-care (30) items. The validity of the instrument was assured through a board of experts, and the instrument's reliability was established through making pilot study which. The data was analyzed throught using descriptive and inferential statistics for the Knowledge 20 items (Before) 0.82. (After) 0.86. Self-care 30 items (Before) 0.76. (After) 0.81. that considered acceptable result as instrument stability. The study findings indicated that the Study Groups expressed poor knowledge at Mean± SD= 1.23±0.200, while the Study Groups at posttest showed a good knowledge at Mean± SD=2.71±0.277, as well as the study found a highly significant differences between the two certain periods of measurement for both two main groupss at p < 0.01. Conversely, in the Control Groups, which illustrated a poor knowledge at pre-post test score, and there was never ever significancy in differing between the pre test and post test for both groupss at p > 0.05. Recommended that patients in need in the period of diagnosis of the disease, strategies of providing information regarding the disease. The community governmental and none governmental organizations can be engaged in increasing the awareness of the public in general in relation to this risky chronic illness.
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs) are involved in many medical fields, besides these nanoparticles can cause cytotoxicity and oxidative stress so it is requisite to estimate the safety of NPs in vivo. Purpose of the present experiment is to investigation the beneficial action of Aloe vera (AV) in reducing oxidative stress caused by exposure to IO-NPs in an animal model. Twenty-four rats were used and divided into three equal groups. Rats that were without any doses were included in the CON group, while IO-NPs rats were administered orally iron oxide nanoparticles, and IO-NPs + AV rats were co-administered of Aloe vera with iron oxide nanoparticles. The experiment was continued for 14 uninterrupted days, after which animals were sacrificed and the serum was obtained for oxidative stress analyzes. The results showed a significantly higher MDA accompanied by lower levels of GSH and CAT for rats receiving IO-NPs when they were compared to control group, but the combined dose with AV significantly improved those toxic changes. We concluded that AV extract can reduce intoxication of IO-NPs on serum oxidative stress indicators.
This study endeavors to appraise invulnerable particles CD45, CD74, cytokines TNF- B and IL-8 in patients infected with hepatitis B virus. An aggregate of (150) seropositive serum samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Serum samples tested by ELISA assay to evaluate the concentration of cytokines and immune marks. Results showed that acute cases of disease express high level of cytokine and immune marks as compared with chronic and asymptomatic infection. Our study provided that acute hepatitis B Virus Infection causes high Immunological changes as compare with asymptomatic disease.
Despite the fact that Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) are the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease (AIDs), the pathophysiology of these diseases is still poorly understood. The serum PD- 1/PD-L1 route is a critical mechanism of peripheral tolerance which has not been thoroughly studied in HT to yet. One hundred-twenty subjects enrolled in this study, divided as 40 newly diagnosed HT patients before treatment classified into (Euthyroid HT, Subclinical HT and Overt HT) based on thyroid function test presentation, 40 non immune hypothyroidism and 40 healthy controls. the evaluation of the soluble PD-1 and PD-L1 in serum of these groups done by using sandwich ELISA and the Thyroid function (included TSH.T3, T4, FT3 and FT4) test by using Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method with measure autoAb to TPO and Tg by Aeskuliza ELISA kit. Collectively these results indicate significant elevation in HT groups so the PD-1/PD-L1 axis is functioning in this disease and that may exert restraint the AID. The PD-1 and PD-L1 axiss are involved in HT glands, but likely not enough to make a difference in stop the illness from progressing. Auto-immunity in thyroid after blocking PD-1 and PD-L1 may be caused by interfering with the PD-1 and PD-L1 tolerance mechanism. Eventually, designed regulator to the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. In the future, this could be a novel therapeutic option for AITD and other organ-based autoimmunity.
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